Abrams D. A.

This was an American professor, researcher and director of the research laboratory for building in Chicago. He performed pioneering work in the field of compositions for mortar. He found the concepts fineness modulus and water-cement ratio.

He also invented the 'cone of Abrams' from which you can determine how tightly or how tight the freshly made concrete mix is right. In other words, with this conical surface, he was able to measure the plasticity of the concrete mix.

Further he did screening tests and other proofs.

Among the fineness modulus means
All mineral mixtures with a similar modulus of fineness require the same amount of mixing water in order to obtain a certain plasticity (fluidity), if the cement content per cubic meter of concrete is the same and the aggregates are similar.

By adding additives, with a certain quantity of cement to be incorporated, a mixture can be found with such a fineness modulus, the less water that is required to achieve a certain degree of plasticity than any other blend. This mixture has then the ideal fineness modulus.

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